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Bhartiya Arthvyavastha BY Ramesh Singh 10th Edition Book Free Download book को लेकर आए है| indian economy by ramesh singh 10th edition pdf हम हम अप सभी Students से बता दे की हम आपके लिए Hindi वह. Results 1 - 16 of INDIAN ECONOMY AND INDIAN POLITY TWO BOOK SET [HINDI MEDIUM]. by TMH M LAXMIKANTH AND RAMESH SINGH. Indian Economy E-Book by Ramesh Singh 9th Edition PDF free Download Download Dhyeya IAS Indian Economic Survey PDF Hindi.
As income of a single person can be measured.
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In due course. Income level is the most commonly used tool to determine the well-being and happiness of nations and their citizens. This remains true even today. All are a form of the national income. There has been some reason for such a perception about the concept of income. The different uses of the concept of GDP are as given below: The governments of the economies decide and announce the rates by which assets depreciate done in India by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry and a list is published.
This is. For example. Every asset except human beings go for depreciation in the process of their uses. The use of the exports-minus-imports factor removes expenditures on imports not produced in the nation..
It will be better to understand the terms used in the concept. There was no logic in doubling the rate. This is one way how depreciation is used in economics.
But it may not be based on logic all the time. Rates of depreciation may be based on logic as it is in the case of houses in India— the cement. NDP is not used in comparative economics. The other way it is used in the external sector while the domestic currency floats freely as against the foreign currencies. This way. The different uses of the concept of NDP are as given below: If the value of the domestic currency falls following market mechanism in comparison to a foreign currency.
Why this is so? This is due to different rates of depreciation which is set by the different economies of the world. But mankind has achieved too much in this area through developments. Also used to understand and analyse the sectoral situation of depreciation in industry and trade in comparative periods. On this front India has always been a gainer.
India offers more such grants than it receives. In the wake of globlisation. India receives grants grants or loan-grant mix from few countries as well as UN bodies like the UNDP and offers several developmental and humanitarian grants to foreign nations.
For a detailed discussion on PPP please see Chapter April The different uses of the concept GNP are as given below: The formula to derive it may be written like: Now such comparisons are done using the GDP. India is ranked as the 3rd largest economy of the world after China and the USA.
India is the 7th largest economy IMF. The different uses of the concept of NNP are as given below: GDP — Income from Abroad. Let us understand the confusion and the relevance of this confusion. Higher the rates of depreciation lower the PCI of the nation whatever be the reason for it logical or artificial as in the case of depreciation being used as a tool of policymaking. A very basic point should be noted here that this is the point where the rates of dipreciation followed by different nations make a difference.
What is the difference between them? Income of an economy. The market price is calculated by adding the product taxes generally taken as the indirect taxes of the Centre and the States to the factor cost. This way India has not switched over the popular international practice. The weight of the state taxes are then added to it. Current price is.
India calculates its national income at constant prices—so is the situation among other developing economies. In such situations growth in the income levels of the population living below the poverty level BPL can never be measured accurately due to higher inflation the section will show higher income and the government will never be able to measure the real impact of its poverty alleviation programmes.
In general. India officially used to calculate its national income at factor cost though the data at market cost was also released which were used for other purposes by the governments. As per the new guidelines the base year in India has been revised from —05 to —12 January Once the proposed GST gets implemented it will be easier for India to calculate its national income at market price.
Income can be derived at two prices. Since January The difference in the constant and current prices is only that of the impact of inflation. Income of a person has three forms—the first form is nominal income the wage someone gets in hand per day or per month. But the amount of indirect taxes cenvat. They get more reliable and realistic data of their income. In the case of India. If the national income is calculated at factor cost then the corpus of the total indirect taxes needs to be deducted from it.
This is why the difference between the incomes at constant and current prices among them are narrow and they calculate their national income at current prices. Unlike India. What happens in practice is that while the nominal income might have increased by only 5 per cent. This is because. This is because the price at which subsidised goods and services are made available by the government are not their real factor costs subsidies are forwarded on the factor costs of the goods and services otherwise we will have a distorted value which will be less than its real value.
In this case. Subsidies are added in the national income at market cost to derive the national income at factor cost. They are added to the national income at market cost.
Some examples of product taxes are excise tax. The major changes incorporated in this revision are as given below: Some production subsidies are subsidies to Railways. Production taxes or production subsidies are paid or received with relation to production and are independent of the volume of actual production. Some examples of production taxes are land revenues. Product taxes or subsidies are paid or received on per unit of the product.
GVA at basic prices. This time. The Base Year was revised from —05 to — The relationship between GVA at factor cost. Product subsidies include food. Use of MCA21 database for manufacturing companies has helped in accounting for activities other than manufacturing undertaken by these companies. GDP at current prices is estimated to be Rs.
Todaro and Stephen C. Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Initiative for Policy Dialogue. Ministry of Finance. Michael P. Company Ltd. John Williamson. Economic Development. The East Asian Miracle. The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. At current prices the PCI is estimated to be Rs. Economic Survey — Walt W. A History of Economics.. World Development Report. Did the Washington Consensus Fail?. Chapter 2 in John Williamson ed. September July New York. A highly concise and to-the-point idea on the issue comes from Joseph.
Penguin Books. Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened?. Washington DC. New Delhi. World Bank. Institute for International Economics.
The conference was sponsored by the Ford Foundation.
Indian Economy 9th Edition Ramesh Singh
Pearson Education. Government of India. Institute for International Economics and John Williamson. The basic price is the amount receivable by the producer from the downloadr for a unit of a good or service produced as output minus any tax payable such as sales tax or VAT the downloader pays.
It was Simon Kuznets. In other words. Cambridge University Press. We have been a witness to a number of notions coming in from the literature of Economics in this area—starting with www. It had both quantitative and qualitative aspects to it. The term can be used in an individual case or in the case of an economy or for the whole world. The most important aspect of growth is its quantifiability. An increase in economic variables over a period of time is economic growth. After a point of time.
We have a few examples: But growth and development were allotted their clear-cut meanings. In economics. By now. But it was only during the s. It was believed that once an economy is able to increase its production.. The main issue economists discussed was—how to increase the quantity of production and income of a country or a nation-state.
Economic growth is a widely used term in economics which is useful in not only national level economic analyses and policymaking. Growth rate is an annual concept which may be used otherwise with the clear reference to the period for which it is used. Though growth is a value neutral term. To calculate the growth rate of an economic variable the difference between the concerned period is converted into percentage form.
International level financial and commercial institutions go for policymaking and future financial planning on the basis of the growth rate data available for the economies of the world. We may say that economic growth is a quantitative progress. For economists. The time had come to define economic development differently from what the world meant by economic growth. There was no conscious discussion over the issue of quality expansion in the lives of the people. One might be giving little attention to health.
Economic growth was considered as a cause and effect for the betterment of the lives of the people. Income is generated from productive activities. It was during the s and in the later decades that economists came across many countries where the growth was comparatively higher. It means that before assuring development we need to assure growth. Here the latter necessarily will have higher development in comparison to the former. Higher economic development requires higher economic growth.
This was the reason why economists. But it does not mean that a higher economic growth automatically brings in higher economic development—a confusion the early economists failed to clarify.
We may cite an example here to understand the confusion: These economies. This circular relationship broke down when the Great Depression occurred. We can say that economic development is quantitative as well as qualitative progress in an economy.
A whole new branch of economics—welfare economics has its origin in the concept of welfare state and the immediacy of development. Without a conscious public policy. If economic growth is suitably used for development. The first such instance of growth without development. It has been a realty difficult task to achieve consensus among the experts on these determinants of development. The HDR measures development by combining three indicators—Health.
The report had a human development index HDI which was the first attempt to define and measure the level of development of economies.
But any attempt in this direction was only possible once there was a tool to know and measure the level of development in an economy and the determinants which could be considered as the traits of development. International bodies such as the UNO. Factors which could show development might be many. It is easy to compare qualitative aspects such as beauty. IMF and WB were concerned about the development of the comparatively underdeveloped regions of the world.
The education index is the geometric mean of two indices. Education and Standard of Living—converted into a composite human development index.
The HDI sets a minimum and a maximum for each dimension. The three indicators4 used to develop the composite index are as given below: This is the observed maximum value of the indicators from the countries in the time series.. The Health component is measured by the life expectancy at birth component of the HDI and is calculated using a minimum value of 20 years and maximum value of The HDI uses the logarithm of income.
Expected years of schooling is capped at 18 years. These estimates are based on enrolment by age at all levels of education and population of official school age for each level of education. These indicators are normalised using a minimum value of zero and maximum values are set to the actual observed maximum value of mean years of schooling from the countries in the time series.
For many years.
Since quality is a matter of value judgement and a normative concept. As per their achievements the countries were broadly classified into three categories with a range of points on the index: The scores for the three HDI dimension indices are then aggregated into a composite index using geometric mean.
Most of such attempts were not prescriptions for an alternative development index. They gave unequal weightage to the determinants defining development. The UNDP ranked5 the economies in accordance of their achievements on the above-given three parameters on the scale of one i. The HDI facilitates instructive comparisons of the experiences within and between different countries.
By Sweden getting the lowest ranks in the index. It means we may try to know a good sleep by the data of thefts and burglaries in homes. In this way a country where people hardly have anything to be stolen or no risk of being burgled might be considered having the best sleep in night. As per experts. One such attempt was made by economists and scholars of the London School of Economics in which concluded that.
As for example. But the index which calculates the development of economies on certain parameters might be overlooking many other important factors. Bangladesh was the most developed country in the world with the USA. Since minor house thefts and burglaries are under-reported in police stations.
Happiness is a normative concept as well as a state of mind.. Confusion about the real meaning of development started only after the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund came into being. As development or www. These resources were pin-pointed as.
It means development had failed to deliver them happiness. The non-material part of our life is rooted in ethics.
As experts were studying the development process of the developing world. Why has development not delivered happiness to the developed world? The answer to this question does not lie in any one objective fact. As the western world came to be regarded as developed. Happiness has its non-material side also.
Social scientists. Most of such studies concluded that life in the developed world is anything but happy. Most of them have suggested a need of redefining development which could deliver happiness to mankind.
Happiness is a broader thing than development. Scholars started questioning the very efforts being made for development around the world. Gross National Happiness: For the non- material part of happiness. Somehow a very small kingdom had been able to define development in its own way.
Due to partial definition of development. This country is Bhutan. Without rejecting the idea of human development propounded by UNDP. On the issue of protecting environment.. And anybody can assess today what kind of happiness the world has been able to achieve in the end.
The world which is in the process of globalisation at one hand has started introspecting whether multicultural co-existence is possible. An impartial analysis sufficiently suggests that material achievements are unable to deliver us happiness devoid of some ethics at its base. And there should not be any doubt in accepting it that the western ideology in the name of development has ultimately.
But till now the proponents of development look a bit shy in believing and accepting whole- heartedly that there exists a non-material part of life. And ethics are rooted in the religious and spiritual texts.
Rather the western idea of secularism was defined after rejecting the very existence of anything like God and also rejecting the whole traditional hypothesis of spiritualism as instances of ignorance and orthodoxy.
We may conclude that mankind is passing through a phase of serious introspection and transition where the dominant view in the world may metamorphose into redefining the very idea of development by including ethical values and spiritualism as important parts. But the new world is guided by its own scientific and secular interpretation of life and the world has always been suspicious about recognising the spiritual factor in human life.
As per the study. The report is a nation survey. Social support someone to count on 3. New Zealand. Sweden top ten nations. Costa Rica 12th. Rankings of WHR are given in the brackets.
Germany 16th. Rwanda and Togo. Ireland 15th. Austria 13th. Top ten countries remained the same as WHR with minor shuffling. Perception of corruption Major highlights of the WHR are as given below: Bangladesh th th and Sri Lanka th th. Pakistan 80th 92nd.
UK 19th and Brazil 22nd. Generosity 6. Healthy life expectancy at birth 4. United States 14th. Nepal 99th th. Bhutan 97th 84th. Freedom to make life choices 5. People in well paid roles are happier. Happiness is a result of creating strong social foundations. Both the WHRs did www.
Changes in reported happiness used to track social progress would perhaps reflect little more than transient changes in emotion. As per the WHR If individuals were to routinely mix up their responses to these very different questions. Happiness is an aspiration of every human being.
If they are not. The responses of individuals to these different questions are highly distinct. Such answers should spur our societies to work harder to end extreme poverty. It argues that both approaches were. There have been important continental crosscurrents within this broader picture.
A very poor person might report himself to be happy emotionally at a specific time. Because of continuing improvements in most supports for better lives in Sub-Saharan Africa. The WHR is based on the primary measures of subjective well-being. The world has become a slightly happier and more generous place over the past five years. Improvements in quality of life have been particularly notable in Latin America and the Caribbean. Western Europe and other western industrial countries. Trends in Happiness The report presents data for the world showing the levels.
This was followed in April by the first UN high-level meeting on happiness and well-being. Now it depends on the nations as how they use the findings of the WHR.
The World Happiness Report was published in support of these efforts to bring the study of happiness into public awareness and public policy. South Korean President Park Geun-hye and British Prime Minister David Cameron have been talking about the importance of well-being as a guide for their nations and the world.
At the same time the first World Happiness Report was published. The two approaches provide complementary lenses which enrich our ability to assess whether life is getting better. Conclusion At the end. In past few years.
A time also came when many scholars and world leaders raised the ultimate question—are we happier today? These contradictions would not come as a shock to the greatest sages of humanity.
While at the one hand the world enjoys technologies of unimaginable sophistication. Over the time. Material life must be harnessed to meet these human needs. The world economy is propelled to soaring new heights of productivity through ongoing technological and organisational advances. Countries achieve great progress in economic development as conventionally measured. The whole gamut of economics literature on progress. The WHR itself provides a very interesting and eye-opening inquiry into the state of human happiness in the world.
For we have entered a new phase of the world. In years or decades. Higher household income or higher per capita GNP generally signifies an improvement in the life conditions of the poor. They require our urgent attention. Perhaps for these reasons. The Anthropocene will necessarily reshape our societies.
We can do this by adopting lifestyles and technologies that improve happiness or life satisfaction and reduce human damage to the environment. Sustainable Development is the term given to the combination of human well-being.
The poor suffer from dire deprivations of various kinds: On the other hand. We are already experiencing deterioration of life support systems in the dry lands of the Horn of Africa and parts of Central Asia. If we continue mindlessly along the current economic trajectory. As incomes rise from very low levels. Human-induced climate change is already hitting the poorest regions and claiming lives and livelihoods.
In fact. So too is the loss of community. Most importantly. Not surprisingly. Poor people would swap with rich people in a heartbeat. Yet all is not well. It is telling that in much of the rich world. The increased US output has caused massive environmental damages. On the opposite end of the income spectrum. There is enough food.
TV and gambling. The conditions of affluence have created their own set of traps. The paradox that Easterlin noted in the US was that at any particular time richer individuals are happier than poorer ones, but over time the society did not become happier as it became richer.
This is due to four reasons: They are happier when they are higher on the social or income ladder. Yet when everybody rises together, relative status remains unchanged. In fact, there are still other general reasons to doubt the formula of ever rising GNP per person as the route to happiness.
In other words, it may be nice to have more money, but not so nice to crave for it. Psychologists have found repeatedly that individuals who put a high premium on higher incomes generally are less happy and more vulnerable to other psychological ills than individuals who do not crave higher incomes. Aristotle and the Buddha advised humanity to follow a middle path between asceticism on the one side and craving material goods on the other.
Since the imagery is ubiquitous on all of our digital devices, the stream of advertising is more relentless than ever before. Its goal is to overcome satiety by creating wants and longings where none previously existed.
Advertisers and marketers do this in part by preying on psychological weaknesses and unconscious urges. Cigarettes, caffeine, sugar, and trans-fats, all cause cravings if not outright addictions.
Fashions are sold through increasingly explicit sexual imagery. Product lines are generally sold by associating the products with high social status rather than with real needs. This means that poor people benefit far more than rich people from an added dollar of income. This is a good reason why tax-and-transfer systems among high-income OECD countries on balance take in net revenues from high-income households and make net transfers to low-income households.
Put another way, the inequality of household income is systematically lower with net of taxes and transfers than before taxes and transfers. Individuals care largely about themselves and derive pleasure mainly through their consumption.
Many of our decisions are led by emotions and instincts, and. And we are largely unaware of our own mental apparatus, so we easily fall into traps and mistakes. We also understand again! We learn through imitation, and gain our happiness through meeting social norms and having a sense of belonging to the community.
Of course there are limits to such cooperation and fellow feeling. We also cheat, bluff, deceive, break our word, and kill members of an out- group. We engage in identity politics, acting as cruel to outsiders as we are loving to our own group. For today we have more choices than ever before. In the ancient world, the choice facing most of humanity most of the time was little choice indeed—to work hard to secure enough to eat, and even then to face the risk of famine and death from bad weather or bad luck.
Should the world pursue GNP to the point of environmental ruin, even when incremental gains in GNP are not increasing much or at all the happiness of affluent societies? Should we crave for higher personal income at the cost of the community and social trust? This is in sharp contrast to the education reform strategy at work in the US, where the emphasis is to put on testing, measurement, and teacher pay according to student test performance.
High- income countries have largely ended the scources of poverty, hunger and disease. Poor countries rightly yearn to do so. But after the end of poverty, what comes next? What are the pathways to well-being when basic economic needs are no longer the main drivers of social change?
What will guide humanity in the Anthropocene: What is the path to happiness? Most people agree that societies should foster happiness of their citizens. The founding fathers of the US recognised the inalienable right to the pursuit of happiness. British philosophers talked about the greatest good for the greatest number. China champions a harmonious society. That indeed has been the traditional view.
Yet the evidence is rapidly changing this view. A generation of studies by psychologists, economists, pollsters, sociologists and others have shown that happiness, though indeed a. Asking people whether they are happy or satisfied with their lives, offers important information about the society.
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It can signal underlying crises or hidden strengths. It can suggest the need for change. Such is the idea of the emerging scientific study of happiness, whether of individuals and the choices they make, or of societies and the reports of the citizenry regarding life satisfaction—the WHR summarises the fascinating and emerging story of these studies on two broad measurements of happiness: This is important to know that both kinds of happiness have predictable causes that reflect various facets of our human nature and our social life.
Happiness differs systematically across societies and over time, for reasons that are identifiable, and even alterable through the ways in which public policies are designed and delivered.
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Bhutan is on to something path breaking and deeply insightful. And the world is increasingly taking notice. Raising income can raise happiness, especially in poor societies, but fostering cooperation and community can do even more, especially in rich societies that have a low marginal utility of income.
It is no accident that the happiest countries in the world tend to be high-income countries that also have a high degree of social equality, trust and quality of governance. In recent years, Denmark has been topping the list. It is, of course, one thing to identify the correlates of happiness, and quite another to use public policies to bring about a society-wide rise in happiness or life satisfaction.
The idea of GNH in Bhutan tells a story of exploration and progress since its King declared the goal of happiness over the goal of wealth. For Bhutan happiness became much more than a guidepost or inspiration; it became an organising principle for governance and policymaking as well.
It is believed that in coming years many more countries in the world will be taking clues from Bhutan and the recently published two World Happiness Reports. Mind, Society, and Behaviour said that development policies become more effective when combined with insights into human behaviour. It further adds that policy decisions informed by behavioural economics can deliver.
It sites some examples from India in the areas of healthcare and education: The Report has recommended that the presence of a stereotype can contribute to measured ability differences, which in turn reinforce the stereotype and serve as a basis for exclusion, in a vicious cycle—finding ways to break this cycle could increase the well-being of marginalised individuals enormously.
In economics, there has been a bit of resistance in emphasising other aspects of development, because it is thought of giving ground to the neighbouring disciplines. Government documents generally, hard-nosed , usually, make no mention. However, there is now a growing body of literature that demonstrates how certain social norms and cultural practices are vital ingredients for economic efficiency and growth.
Groups and societies that are known to be honest and trustworthy tend to do better than societies that do not have this reputation. There have been broad cross- country studies and also laboratory experiments that illustrate this.
Societies that are endowed with personal integrity and trustworthiness have the natural advantage, in that no third party is required to enforce contracts. For outsiders the mere knowledge that a particular society is trustworthy is reason to do more business and trade with it. Fortunately, the new discipline of behavioural economics is beginning to give us some insights into the formation of customs and behaviour: It is almost as if we have a mental inclination not to defile a good ambience through acts of corruption.
This act of making the cityscape more aesthetic somehow made potential criminals less prone to crime. All this is in keeping with the influential broken windows theory in sociology, which maintains that, if we control low level, anti-social behaviour and take small steps to improve the environment, this will have a natural deterrent effect on larger criminal behaviour and acts of corruption.
Also, the sheer recognition and awareness that some collective qualities of citizens, such as honesty and trustworthiness, enable the entire society to do well, prompts individuals to adopt those qualities and overcome the ubiquitous free-rider problem. There is a growing literature24 in economics arguing that pro-social behaviour, which includes altruism and trustworthiness, is innate to human beings and, moreover, forms an essential ingredient for the efficient functioning of economies.
In other words, human beings have a natural ability to forego personal gains for the sake of other people or because that is what is required because of a promise the person had made. This trait may well have evolutionary roots, but its existence is now well demonstrated in laboratory tests by recent studies.
However, the recognition that these human and moral qualities can have a large impact on economic development came relatively late to economics.
Hence, the literature on this is relatively recent and brief. There is also evidence that social norms and habits that at first sight seem ingrained in a society can change over short periods of time. By this argument it is possible for a country to nurture and develop the kinds of social norms that enable a more vibrant economy.
It is, however, important to recognise that much also depends on civil society, the firms, the farmers and ordinary citizens. The social norms and collective beliefs that. Honesty, punctuality, the propensity to keep promises, the attitude towards corruption are matters shaped in great part by norms, and social beliefs and the behaviour patterns can become habitual.
Moreover, in a democracy like India, what can be done by government depends in great measure on how ordinary people think and what people believe in. That is what electoral politics is all about. An important reason why this got so little attention in the past is because so much of traditional economics was written as if these non- economic facets of life did not matter.
But we now know that a market economy cannot function if people are totally self serving. While self-interest is a major driver of economic growth, it is important to recognise that honesty, integrity and trustworthiness constitute the cement that binds society. At times economists treated these social norms, preferences and customs as unalterable. If that were so, there would not be much point in analysing their effect. But we do know that these qualities in a people can change.
Honesty and integrity can be nurtured and aversion to corruption can be shored up. If these traits are absent or inadequate in a nation, it is likely that that nation will stagnate and remain in a chaotic poverty trap. Take for instance, contracts which enable markets to develop and form the basis of economic life. If the contractual system in a nation is so weak that when a bank gives a year mortgage to a person for downloading a house, there is high risk of default, the implication of this is not that banks in that country will make large losses.
The implication is that banks will not give loans; and the housing market will remain severely underdeveloped and the total number of houses will be few and far between. Enforcing complicated or large contracts, especially ones protracted over a long period of time, is the responsibility of the state. The state provides the laws and enforcement to enable people to sign contracts. In these everyday situations it is too cumbersome to bring in the state or the law courts. Here the main guarantor.
Societies that have successfully nurtured these qualities have done well; societies that have done poorly on these fronts, tend to do poorly in terms of economic progress. It is not known precisely how these values can be inculcated in society.
But, hopefully, writing about their importance will catalyse change, as ordinary people realise that for economic advancement these social qualities are as important as policies that concern directly with the economy—like operating the stock market or setting the rules of market competition.
Further, basic literacy and better education are helpful since people can then, on their own, reason and reach these conclusions. Literacy has the added value that it implies ordinary people will demand policies which are truly better, rather than those that merely look good on the surface. In a democratic setting like India, this will incentivise politicians to adopt better policies. Finally, if political leaders and policymakers act as role models in terms of these qualities of honesty, integrity and trustworthiness, that can set the ball rolling.
Inclusion of the behavioural dimension of human existence in policymaking has potential to play a huge role in promoting well-being. Based on the analyses in Michael P. Meier and James E. Todaro and Smith, Economic Development, p. By the late s new views of development started emerging. Jegadish Gandhi and many others. Which Way Now? Wealth is important for human life. But to concentrate exclusively on it is wrong for two reasons. First, accumulating wealth is not necessary for the fulfillment of some important human choices The World Bank by had also changed its views about development and had concluded that for improving the quality of life we should include education, health, nutrition, less proverty, cleaner environment, equality, greater freedom and richer cultural life as the goals of development.
Amartya Sen, a leading thinker on the meaning of development attracted attention for articulating human goals of development. The WHRs have three editors: John F.
Jeffrey D. The responses provide the scientific base to support the WHR findings that answers to the two questions give consistent and mutually supportive information about the correlates of a good life.
UN General Assembly, Happiness: Helliwell, R. Sachs eds. Layard and J. The Anthropocene is a newly invented term that combines two Greek words: Here he concluded that contrary to expectation, happiness at a national level does not increase with wealth once basic needs are fulfilled.
Suppose that a poor household at Rs. A rich household at Rs. Gains in income have to be of equal proportions to household income to have the same benefit in units of life satisfaction. On an average across, the OECD countries, cash transfers and income taxes reduce inequality by one third. Poverty is around 60 per cent lower than it would be without taxes and benefits. Even among the working-age population, government redistribution reduces poverty by about 50 per cent OECD, Delhi, 3 February, Over half a dozen contemporary works have been cited as references by the Ministry of Finance, Economic Survey —11, Government of India, N Delhi, p.
Fukuyama, Trust: Guha, and B. Being a typical case of colonial economy, India was serving a purpose of development not for herself but for a foreign land—the. United kingdom. Both agriculture and industry were having structural distortions while the state was playing not even a marginal role.
During the half century before India became independent, the world was having accelerated development and expansion in its agriculture and industry on the shoulders of the active role being played by the states, with the same happening in the UK itself. The colonial state practiced policies which were great impediments in the process of development in the country. India remained a continent of illiterate peasants under British rule.
At the time of Independence, its literacy was only 17 per cent with Indian capitalists who did emerge were highly dependent on British commercial capital and many sectors of the industry were dominated by British firms, e. According to economic statistician Angus Maddison, there was no per capita growth in India from to —per capita growth was a meagre. Somehow, these dominant lot of people who were going to lay down the foundation stones of the independent Indian economy were almost having consensual9 view, even before the Independence, on many major strategic issues: Once India became independent, it was a real challenge for the government of the time to go for a systematic organisation of the economy.
This was a task full of every kind of challenges and hurdles as the economy had hardly anything optimistic.
The need of delivering growth and development was in huge demand in front of the political leadership as the country was riding on the promises and vibes of the nationalist fervour. It was not a simple task.
Now the decisions which were to be taken by the political leadership of the time were going to shape the very future of India. Many important and strategic decisions were taken only by which shaped Indian economic journey till date—undoubtedly they heavily dominated the pre-reform period, but the post-reform period is also not completely free of their impact.
To understand the nature and scope of the Indian economy in current times it is not only useful but essential to go through the facts, reasons and the. A brief overview follows. A topical issue of the debate regarding India has been the choice for the sector which will lead the process of development.
Whether India should have gone for agriculture as its prime moving force for better prospects of development, is a highly debatable issue even today among experts.
Every economy has to go for its development through exploitation of its natural and human resources. There are priorities of objectives set by the economy which is attempted to be realised in a proper time frame. The availability and non-availability of resources natural as well as human are not the only issues which make an economy decide whether to opts for agriculture or industry as its prime moving force. There are many more socio- political compulsions and objectives which play their roles in such decision making.
The political leadership selected industry as the leading force of the economy after Independence—this was already decided by the dominant group of the nationalist leaders way back in the mids when they felt the need for economic planning in India before setting up the National Planning Committee in Given the available resource base it seems an illogical decision as India lacked all those pre-requisites which could suggest the declaration of industry as its prime mover: The obvious choice for India would have been the agriculture sector as the prime moving force of the economy because: By only organising our land ownership, irrigation and other inputs to agriculture, India could have gone for better prospects of development.
Once there was no crises of food, shelter, basic healthcare, etc. Once the masses were able to achieve a level of downloading capacity, India could have gone for the expansion of industries. India was capable of generating as much surplus income for its masses as was required by the emerging industries for a market success.
The surplus generated out of agriculture was suitably invested to develop the pre-requisites for industrialisation and the country went for it in the s. The emergence of industrial China was so vibrant that its impact was felt in the so-called highly developed and industrialised economies of the world— the industrial homework of China catapulted it into a giant. Was the political leadership of independent India not able to analyse the realities as we did above and conclude that agriculture should have been the moving force of the economy in place of industry?
Is it possible that Pandit Nehru in command could have missed the rational analysis of the Indian realities, a giant among the Asian visionaries of the time Mao was still to emerge on the international scene? How India could have not opted for agriculture as its prime moving force whose leadership had fought the nationalist movement on the Gandhian fervour of villages, agriculture and. There were many decisions which were taken under the influence of the main political force of the times, still some very vital ones were influenced by the visionary hunches of the political leadership mainly being J.
This is why the economic thinking of independent India is considered and said to be nurtured by Nehruvian Economics even today. If we go through the major literatures on the Indian economic history, views of the critiques of the time and the contemporary experts, we may be able to feel the answer as to why India went for industry as its prime moving force in place of an obvious and logical choice of agriculture we should not be happy to know that even today this is a highly debatable issue among experts: But as Indian agriculture was using traditional tools and technology its modernisation as well as future mechanisation later to some extent would have been blocked due to the lack of indigenous industrial support.
If India would have gone for import this would have required enough foreign reserves and a natural dependence on foreign countries. By choosing industry as the prime moving force, India opted to industrialise the economy as well as modernise the traditional mode of farming. These international bodies were supporting the member countries from every point of view to industrialise. Same was the case with the developed economies. It was possible not only to industrialise faster on these supports of the organisations but there was a hope for emerging as an industrial exporter in the future.
The same kind of support was not offered to an economy that opted for agriculture as the prime moving force. The political leadership wanted to carry India ahead, and not in the. After the s emphasis on this sector by an economy was no more considered a sign of backwardness. For defence a country needs not only the support of science and technology, but also an industrial base.
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The Economy of Modern India — As country after country successfully industrialised, a pattern of the population shift from one to another sector was established, which was known as the stages of growth of an economy. He suggested the capitalistic order to assimilate the goals of the socialistic economy economic ideals of the socialists. India delayed this process while in Indonesia.
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