H87 A laboratory manual (or comparative vert 3 DATE DUE I must therefore ask the indulgence of the expert in vertebrate anatomy for the. The purpose of this book, now in its third edition, is to introduce the morphology of vertebrates in a context that emphasizes a comparison of structire and of the. Hyman's Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, , pages, Marvalee H. Wake, The Dissection of Vertebrates A Laboratory Manual, Gerardo De Iuliis.

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Hyman, Libbie H. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, p. $ Greta Oppe · Search for more papers by this . Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File ( .txt) or read book online. Author: Henrietta Hyman. INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY: An In- troduction to. Animal. Morphology and. Bionomics. . Hyman, L. H. A Laboratory Manual for Comparative. Vertebrate.

The more compact condensations later give rise to the vertebral bodies, while those that are less dense have been observed to adopt fibroblast morphology.

It is this region of the vertebral column upon which the lamellae of the annulus fibrosus form Christ and Wilting, ; Rufai et al. While much of the development of the vertebral column has been characterized in mouse models, intervertebral development in chickens has been less thoroughly studied. During primary gastrulation, paraxial mesoderm in the segmental plate epithelializes to form the first 28 pairs of somites Deries et al.

Then, during the second day of chicken embryonic development somites undergo a craniocaudal polarization by which separate cranial and caudal compartments perform different developmental tasks; specifically, an epithelio-mesenchymal transition mediated by secreted signals from surrounding tissues gives rise to the sclerotome Deries et al.

The components of the axial skeleton, including the vertebral bodies, neural arches, spinous processes, proximal ribs, and intervertebral discs, are believed to be derived from distinct cell subpopulations within the sclerotome Brent and Tabin, ; Brent et al.

Currently the literature provides conflicting reports as to which half-sclerotome gives rise to the disc based on studies of the fate of half-somites in chickens. Bagnall and Sanders determined that the caudal half-somite contributes to the disc using peanut lectin staining Bagnall and Sanders, , as did Huang et al.

However, Goldstein and Kalcheim reported that the rostral half-somite was responsible for disc formation Goldstein and Kalcheim, Using the lipophilic fluorescent probes DiI and DiA, we fate mapped distinct regions of each half-somite in chickens. In mice, the anterior sclerotome was fate mapped using a TbxCre allele Cai et al. Based on our mouse and chick lineage analysis we propose that cells from the rostral half-sclerotome contribute to the caudal half of the vertebral body and the intervertebral disc, while the caudal half-sclerotome contributes to the rostral half of the adjacent vertebra.

In addition, our analysis revealed that the notochord persists throughout embryonic chicken development, resulting in an absence of nuclei pulposi within chicken intervertebral discs. Examination of additional species revealed that nuclei pulposi were only found in mammals. Results Chicken and quail intervertebral discs lack nuclei pulposi To determine if the chicken intervertebral disc was similar in structure to the mammalian disc, we examined chicken vertebral columns from Hamburger Hamilton HH stage 19 — 44 Hamburger and Hamilton, and adult animals using the stains picrosirius red and alcian blue.

These reagents stain collagen red and glycosaminoglycans blue, respectively.

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The Comparative Anatomy of the Muscular System. The Comparative Anatomy of the Coelom and of. The Comparative Anatomy of the Circulatory System. The Comparative Anatomy of the Urogenital System. The Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System and. List of Contributors.

Lutz , John A. The poorer the fossil record, the easier it is to ergct distinctions between existing animal groups.

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In the case of the vertebrates where excellent series of fossils have been unearthed, including satisfactory transitional types between the principal groups, the construction of mutually exclusive definitions is very difficult, if not impossible, when the fossil forms are taken into account. Hence the following definitions must not be taken too literally.

Subphylum I. Urochordata or Tunicata, the tunicates or sea squirts. Subphylum II. Vertebrata or Craniata, all chordates with an endoskeleton of cartilage or bone or a combination of these. Fish and Fishlike Animals Cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates with fins as locomotory organs or, primitively, no locomotory organs and gills as respiratory organs; vertebral axis ending in a vertical fin; heart with one atrium and one ventricle; embryos without membranes except the yolk sac.

Class I. Fishlike animals without jaws and with no or poorly developed fins. Orders Osteostraci, Anaspida, Heterostraci, extinct forms commonly called ostracoderms, having an armor of heavy plates. Order 4.

Cyclostomata, the round-mouthed fishes. Skin naked, slimy; round jawless mouth, often employed as a sucker; without paired fins; with a row of from six to fourteen external or concealed gill slits; single median nasal sac and nasohypophyseal aperture; and canal. Suborder 1. Myxinoidea, the hagfishes. Nasohypo, physeal aperture terminal, its canal opening into the pharynx, branchial basket vestigial.

Bdellostoma, Myxine. Suborder 2. Petromyzontia, the lampreys. Nasohypophyseal aperture dorsal, leading into a blind sac, branchial basket present. Petromyzon, Lampetra.

Class I I. Placodermi or Aphetohyoidea. Extinct fish with jaws and apparently a fullsized hyoid gill slit; with pectoral or both pectoral and pelvic paired fins; with an armor of bony scales and cartilaginous skeleton, with some ossifixation. Class III. Chondrichthyes, the cartilaginous fishes. Sharklike fishes with jaws and paired fins; skeleton wholly or largely cartilaginous; no 2 The classification is taken from the publications of Romer; extinct groups in small type.

Cladoselachii, Pleuracanthodii, extinct sharks.

Order 3. Elasmobranchii or Euselachii, the sharks, skates, and rays. Skeleton VhoUy cartilaginous, membrane bones lacking, hyostylic type of upper-jaw suspension; armature reduced to small denticles imbedded in the skin; with a spiracle and exposed gill slits; with a spiral valve and conus arteriosus; pelvic fins of male with claspers.

Holocephali, the chimaeras. Fish of curious aspect, with a mostly naked skin; spiracle absent, gill slits concealed under a nonbony skin flap; immovable holostylic type of jaw suspension; notochord large, vertebrae poorly developed; flat bony plates in place of teeth; with spiral valve, conus arteriosus, and claspers.

Class IV. Osteichthyes, the bony fishes. Skeleton partly or largely ossified; chondrocranium, jaws, and pectoral girdle incased in dermal bones; body clothed with scales or rhomboid plates; gills covered by a bony operculum; with an air bladder which may function as a lung; nostrils double; no claspers.

Subclass 1. Paired fins with a supporting lobe; nostrils opening into the roof of the oral cavity; well-developed air bladder used as lung; no typical branchiostegal rays; clothed with rounded or rhomboid scales.

Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

Superorder 1. Crossopterygii, the lobe-finned fishes. Latimeria, Osteolepis. Superorder 2. Dipnoi, the lungfishes. Paired fins with an elongated jointed axis bearing side branches; jaw suspension autostylic; spiracle absent; with tooth plates; with spiral valve and conus arteriosus. Epiceratodus, Protopterus, Lepidosiren. Hence, the fishes of this group may be referred to either as selachians or as elasmobranchs.

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But some consider Elasmobranchii synonymous with Chondrichthyes. Unfortunately, the soft parts were too spoiled to be preserved. The fish was named Latimeria.The notochord was also present in the middle of all vertebrae during embryogenesis Figure 1.

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Cladoselachii, Pleuracanthodii, extinct sharks. Email or Customer ID. The central nucleus pulposus is a hydrogel-like structure made primarily of proteoglycans.

In the former case the animal is said to exhibit both external and internal segmentation; in the latter case internal metamerism alone is present.

Each segment is then no longer capable of carrying on all functions but becomes dependent upon the other segments, with a resulting unification and harmony of performance lacking in homonomously segmented forms. Currently the literature provides conflicting reports as to which half-sclerotome gives rise to the disc based on studies of the fate of half-somites in chickens. Paired fins with a supporting lobe; nostrils opening into the roof of the oral cavity; well-developed air bladder used as lung; no typical branchiostegal rays; clothed with rounded or rhomboid scales.

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