Slack, J. M. W., Essential Developmental Biology, Malden: Blackwell, Article (PDF Available) in Russian Journal of Developmental Biology 36(6) (Science is after all, the knowledge of nature's laws.) The laws of nature express love, respond to gestures of love, essential cell biology. Essential Developmental Biology is a comprehensive, richly illustrated introduction to all aspects of developmental biology. Written in a clear and accessible.

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Essential. Developmental. Biology. Jonathan M.W. Slack MA, PhD, FMedSci. Stem Cell Institute. University of Minnesota. Minneapolis. MN, USA. Professor. Essential. Developmental. Biology. J.M.W. Slack. Department of Biology and The right of Jonathan Slack to be identified as the Author of this Work has been. [J M W Slack] -- Essential Developmental Biology is a comprehensive, richly illustrated introduction to all aspects of developmental biology. Written in a clear.

Slack J M W Essential Developmental Biology

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Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Similar Items Related Subjects: Developmental biology. Linked Data More info about Linked Data. Primary Entity http: Book , schema: CreativeWork , schema: Groundwork; Chapter 1: The excitement of developmental biology; Where the subject came from; Impact of developmental biology; Future impact; Further reading; Chapter 2: How development works; Ultrashort summary; Gametogenesis; Meiosis; Oogenesis; Spermatogenesis; Early development; Fertilization; Cleavage; Gastrulation; Axes and symmetry; Developmental control genes; Morphogen gradients; Homeotic mutations; Homeotic, homeobox, and Hox; Morphogenetic processes; Cell movement; Cell adhesion.

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Developmental biology -- Laboratory manuals. Similar Items. Classification of morphogenetic processesGrowth and death; Further reading; Chapter 3: Approaches to development: Clonal analysisDevelopmental commitment; Cytoplasmic determinants; Induction; Lateral inhibition; Stochasticity in development; The "epigenetic landscape"; Criteria for proof; Further reading; Chapter 5: Intracellular labelsGenetic labels; Further reading; Section 2: At present transplantation is seriously limited by the availability of donor organs.

There are two conceivable routes to this end. The tissue engineering route involves the growth of the tissue or organ in vitro either from stem cells or from combinations of mature cells that can be cultivated outside the body.

This involves the production of novel types of three-dimensional extracellular matrix, or scaffold, on which the cells grow and with which they interact. Tissue engineering will need more input from developmental biology in order to be able to create tissues containing several interacting cell types, or tissues with appropriate vascular and nerve supplies.

The second route to replacement tissues and organs envisages their growth from human embryonic stem cells ES cells. This may be possible by improvement of culture conditions or it may turn out also to require genetic modification of the cells.

In either case there are potential ethical problems connected with genetic modification of human tissues and with the use of human eggs for a purpose other than conventional reproduction. This issue also intersects with the debate about human cloning. This is called therapeutic cloning and involves growing the ES cells from an egg in which the nucleus has been replaced by one from the individual needing the graft.

The potential advantage is that this could be a method for creating a limitless supply of grafts with perfect immunological compatibility. The continuing ethical debate on this matter arises because the procedure technically involves the creation of an embryo for a purpose other than reproduction.

Finally, we should not overlook the likely applications of developmental biology to agriculture. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Larsen, W. New York: Churchill Livingstone. Hildebrand, M.

New York: John Wiley. Carlson, B. St Louis, MO: Mosby. Textbooks, mainly analytical Twyman, R.

Essential Developmental Biology JMW Slack

Oxford: Bios Scientific Publishers. Wolpert, L. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gilbert, S.

Essential developmental biology

Wilt, F. New York: W. Monograph Martinez-Arias, A. Reproductive technology and ethics Edwards, R. International Journal of Developmental Biology 41, — Austin, C. Braude, P. International Journal of Developmental Biology 45, — Maienschein, J. Embryos, cloning and stem cells. Hwang, W.

Science , — Chapter 2 Common features of development Developmental biology is the science that seeks to explain how the structure of organisms changes with time. Structure, which may also be called morphology or anatomy, encompasses the arrangement of parts, the number of parts, and the different types of parts. Parts may be large, such as whole organs, or small, down to the level of the organization of individual cells. Development happens most obviously in the course of embryonic development as the fertilized egg develops into a complete organism.

This book deals mainly with embryonic development. But it should not be forgotten that development also occurs in postembryonic life. The larva will at some stage undergo a metamorphosis in which the body is remolded to a greater or lesser extent to form the adult. Of the model organisms considered in this book, Drosophila shows a drastic metamorphosis during which most of the adult body is formed from imaginal discs laid down in the larva.

Xenopus also undergoes metamorphosis from a tadpole to the adult frog. Some animals are capable of asexual reproduction by forming buds, and this is usually associated with the ability to regenerate large parts of the body after loss caused by predators. This is true for example of many hydroids and planarian worms.

Regenerative ability is less evident in higher animals but some amphibians have the ability to regrow limbs and tails after amputation, and even in mammals there is a certain ability to repair tissue damage following wounding.

Some developmental events are also associated with cell turnover and differentiation which occur continuously in most types of animal. Each of these examples of development involves similar problems and they can loosely be classified into four groups: 1 Regional specification deals with how pattern appears in a previously similar population of cells.

For example, most early embryos pass through a stage called the blastula or blastoderm at which they consist of a featureless ball or sheet of cells.

Somehow the cells in different regions need to become programmed to form different body parts such as the head, trunk, and tail. This often involves regulatory molecules deposited in particular positions within the fertilized egg determinants. In addition it always involves some intercellular signaling, called embryonic induction, leading to the activation of different combinations of regulatory genes in each region.

Processes of regional specification occur in early development, during the formation of individual organs, and in the course of metamorphosis or regeneration. There are more than different specialized cell types in a vertebrate body, ranging from epidermis to thyroid epithelium, lymphocyte, or neuron.

Each cell type owes its special character to particular proteins coded by particular genes. The study of cell differentiation deals with the way in which these genes are activated and how their activity is subsequently maintained.

Cell differentiation continues throughout life in regions of cell turnover. This depends on the dynamics of the cytoskeleton and on the mechanics and viscoelastic properties of cells. It is less well understood than 1 and 2. Again, the morphogenetic processes involved in formation of tissue microstructure persist into adult life. Although more familiar to the lay person than other aspects of development, it is currently the least well understood aspect in terms of molecular mechanisms.

With a few exceptions, such as the lymphocytes of the immune system, all the different cell types in the animal body retain a complete set of genes.

This means that the regulation of gene activity is important for all four processes and occupies a central position in developmental biology. Many techniques for the study of gene expression are described in Chapter 5. The best evidence that all cell types retain a complete set of genes is derived from experiments on the cloning of animals from the nucleus of a single cell. Common features of development u Genomic equivalence, cloning of animals In any animal the sperm and eggs and their precursor cells are known as the germ line.

All other cell types are called somatic cells. The germ-line cells have to retain a full complement of genes otherwise reproduction would be impossible.

It is generally accepted that virtually all the somatic cells in animals also contain the full complement of genes and that the differences between cells are due to the fact that different subsets of genes are active. The total DNA content of most somatic cell types is the same; and when examined for the presence of a particular gene by standard molecular biological methods, DNA from all tissues gives the same results.

The most persuasive evidence has been obtained from experiments in which a whole animal is created using a single nucleus taken from a somatic cell. Well-known are the examples of the frog, which usually hatches as a tadpole and metamorphoses to an adult frog, and certain insects which hatch as a larva and then become remodeled to the adult form during a pupal stage. All the developmental processes listed above occur during metamorphosis.

Examples that have been especially well studied include tail loss and other changes in the tadpole of the frog Xenopus, [24] [25] and the biology of the imaginal discs, which generate the adult body parts of the fly Drosophila melanogaster.

It is studied in plant anatomy and plant physiology as well as plant morphology. Plants constantly produce new tissues and structures throughout their life from meristems [28] located at the tips of organs, or between mature tissues. Thus, a living plant always has embryonic tissues. By contrast, an animal embryo will very early produce all of the body parts that it will ever have in its life.

When the animal is born or hatches from its egg , it has all its body parts and from that point will only grow larger and more mature. The properties of organization seen in a plant are emergent properties which are more than the sum of the individual parts. From that point, it begins to divide to form a plant embryo through the process of embryogenesis. As this happens, the resulting cells will organize so that one end becomes the first root, while the other end forms the tip of the shoot.

In seed plants, the embryo will develop one or more "seed leaves" cotyledons. By the end of embryogenesis, the young plant will have all the parts necessary to begin in its life. Once the embryo germinates from its seed or parent plant, it begins to produce additional organs leaves, stems, and roots through the process of organogenesis.

New roots grow from root meristems located at the tip of the root, and new stems and leaves grow from shoot meristems located at the tip of the shoot.

Growth from any such meristem at the tip of a root or shoot is termed primary growth and results in the lengthening of that root or shoot. Secondary growth results in widening of a root or shoot from divisions of cells in a cambium. This occurs when individual cells or groups of cells grow longer.In each zone a different combination of developmental control genes is upregulated.

It has turned out that all animals use very similar mechanisms to control their development. It is well known that Ver- tebrata have the rank of subtype and include several This textbook has already been republished twice, in classes: Cyclostomata, Chondrostei, Teleostei, and , apparently without any modifications Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia.

The third section deals with stem cells and organ development, mostly of vertebrates but including also Drosophila imaginal discs. Finally, a new chapter on evolution and development now gives this area viii u Preface a higher profile than in the first edition.

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