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These are some of the charts my students made while learning about the How-To Text genre: Part 2: Judging the Top Chefs or Cookbook Authors Before we write the recipes for our class cookbook, I want to make sure that my students understand the difference between a great I-gotta-try-it recipe and a blah recipe. I could go over a recipe rubric with my students, but signing them on as acquisitions editors for the make-believe YumYum Publishing Company is way more fun!
We first discuss what a publishing company is, how publishers might choose books to publish, and I explain the role of the acquisitions editor. The acquisitions editor or commissioning editor sorts through book proposals to decide or advise about which authors to offer publishing contracts.
My students took their editorial jobs very seriously while they debated the merits of various recipes. Best of all, by the end of this lesson, my students knew what was required for a cookbook worthy recipe. Part 3: Collect Recipes! This part works better with parent support. Digital recipes saved me a time consuming step — all I had to do was format the recipes for consistency.
Here is the template I used to format the recipe s. This is the cover from our cookbook this year. You can download a Microsoft Word version of this cover and change the text for your class.
At the same time it is part of a wider fetishisation of the maternal that coexists with profoundly gendered inequalities in relation to childcare in particular.
This tendency, the article argues, is indicative of the conservative nature of the phenomenon, which is forced to belittle and disavow wider structures of social, political and ecological dependency in order for its conservative fantasy of autonomous, individualising retreatism to be maintained.
Whilst her characteristics are mutable according to context or as changeable as her clothing , most often the term is used in contemporary Britain to symbolise a type of mother who is sexually attractive and well groomed, and who knows the importance of spending time on herself. The yummy mummy is a social type, in the same way as the yuppie, the hippy, the new man, the ladette or the chav. They are overdetermined figures that gain their force as figures repeated across different media.
Most references to her are not about disgust or the abject, but the opposite: desirability and sexual attractiveness. Where did she come from, the yummy mummy, with her flyaway hair, skinny fit jeans and Silver Cross pram? What does the yummy mummy indicate about 2 contemporary ideas of femininity and parenting, and what does her popular existence tell us about the times we live in?
To answer these questions this article explores some of the different dimensions of this stock type. In doing so, it outlines the individualising tendencies of a neoliberal fetishisation of singular models of desirable maternal femininity, alongside their refraction of the psychological, environmental and social ecologies in which they are formed and which they attempt to shape and to deny.
This formation is actually a substantial cultural shift, given the enormous weight of the Western Christian tradition which has positioned the mother as asexual, as enshrined by the figure of the Virgin Mary.
As Adrienne Rich wrote in Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution, The divisions of labour and allocations of power in patriarchy demand not merely a suffering Mother, but one divested of sexuality: the Virgin Mary, virgo intacta, perfectly chaste.
Women are permitted to be sexual only at a certain time of life, 3 and the sensuality of mature — and certainly of aging — women has been perceived as grotesque, threatening and inappropriate.
The myth that mothers were asexual beings therefore began to be dismantled in some of the key texts of second-wave feminism. However, such sexualised bodies were primarily restricted to pregnant women, not mothers; and by the s the key tropes around motherhood were instead focused firstly around moral panics over single mothers, 4 and secondly through women juggling their lives through increased participation in the post-Fordist labour market Woodward Circumscribed sexualities However, the negative aspects of this configuration are multiple.
First, it becomes an imperative — the message is that mothers are not just allowed but expected to perform a specific kind of sexualisation. Treatments like facials that would 20 years ago have only been the preserve of the very rich are now advised as necessary and routine.
As minor UK celebrity Melanie Sykes in her guidebook Blooming Beautiful tells us: Being a gorgeous mum just takes a bit of imagination and more planning than it did before, but you really have no excuse for sinking into frumpdom and blaming it on parenthood Sykes and Bond It is hard to imagine a clearer expression than this of how the onus - no matter the extent of resources or income - is on a self-governing subject to regulate herself.
In other words, it involves the extension of a fashion and beauty complex to the pregnant and post-pregnant body Jermyn For example the mother in Secret Diary of a Slummy Mummy is at one point characterised as slummy for failing to get a manicure that month. For McRobbie such behavioural codes are part of a wider socio-political landscape which calls women to push feminism away and position it as outmoded in order to feel fully contemporary, sexy and cool McRobbie Third, the yummy mummy is figured as more of a desired than a desiring subject: her sexuality is circumscribed.
In turn, the yummy mummy has been most used as a stock figure in Britain, and so, unsurprisingly, has more specific class associations.
Classy subjects The yummy mummy is profoundly classed. Such affluence is apparent from the designer-obsessed yummy mummy of Shopaholic and Baby to the high-end clothing recommendations of celebrity guidebooks like Sykes and Oliver Kinsella ; Sykes and Boyd ; Oliver The landscape of henlit is overwhelmingly populated by people living in extremely affluent metropolitan centres who are surprised and embarrassed that people actually live in less affluent zones like Hackney or Queens.
If these classed and racialised dynamics reflect the fact that these are genres written about primarily by white thirty-something metropolitan-based female journalists, they also relate to wider social demographic trends. The birth rate in much of Western Europe and the US has been increasing since its historic low in the early s.
Whilst this is 7 nowhere near the boom of the s, it is, in relative terms, a marked upswing. In the US, where there have been no improvements in welfare entitlements, the rise in births is usually simply put down to the wealthy having more babies. As the US Council on Contemporary Families put it in its commentary a few years ago "birthrates ticked up quite a bit among the most affluent.
In the UK the story is similar yet different. The rich are also having more babies. But so are other socio-economic groups, which can be related to the partial increase in some family-friendly policies. In both cases, the picture is most significantly polarised through one particular combination of class and age, for women in their thirties are typically having babies older, bringing the average age of a women having a baby in the UK up to 29 Office for National Statistics Even so, the world the character inhabits bears an increasingly tenuous relationship to that inhabited by the vast majority of mothers.
As Kate Crawford writes, young people are castigated for being adultescents, when in fact they are economically infantilized through the accumulation of debts and their inability to afford housing deposits, let alone the rising cost of childcare Crawford These actions fall on top of a context which is already largely family unfriendly.
As Bea Campbell has commented, one of the key problems to persist since second-wave feminism has been that neither it, nor society more broadly, has dealt effectively or equitably with the issue of childcare Campbell This situation is shared to a considerable extent though with some important differences by the US Asher ; Slaughter, In the midst of these contexts — comprising a collective social failure that makes it very hard to combine work and childcare in equitable and supportive fashion - there has been a fetishisation of the maternal.
Susan J. Douglas and Meredith Michaels argue in their book The Mommy Myth that the American stay-at-home and downscaling mom have achieved a new prominence in the past two decades, having become idealised at exactly the same time as neoliberal policies have sought to cut back on and avoid providing state daycare provision Douglas and Michaels The idealisation of motherhood works to obscure the effects of these policies as it renders looking after children a thoroughly private issue.
The yummy mummy can be understood as one of these forms of fetishisation of the maternal. The dilemmas faced by the heroines of the guidebooks and the novels — whether about baby rearing or relationships - are overwhelmingly presented as emotional issues, occluding the questions of money and privilege.
It is here that the role of such media constructions is important, for it is such images and messages that make different modes of motherhood something to either aspire to or to scorn. By yoking together, or articulating, glamorisation with a denial of social dynamics, the yummy mummy works actively to generate a popular conservative fantasy.
The denial of social dynamics is also registered in how, for example, the yummy mummy herself is presented as infantilised — as in effect too girlish to engage with such bigger issues. It meant we could get everything we needed in pink!
It reverses the idea of the mother as devouring monster; the hungry, castrating monstrous feminine that populates psychoanalysis, flipping the trope around so it is instead the mother herself who is not only edible but also a diminutive tasty morsel.
Their offer of chummy intimacy and advice functions in a post-traditional society where family networks can no longer be relied upon to deliver support to new mothers, but it is delivered via a diminutive little-girlishness through the design of the books and the narrative tone.
The books themselves are often decked out in nursery pastels with multiple kisses from the author Oliver ; Klass One further interesting point in the light of this diminutive feminisation is the traffic between gay male sensibilities and the re-sexualisation of femininity.
This process is clearly ambivalent. It can mark the success of gay men in the realms of fashion and of lifestyle TV Palmer It can mark the celebration of a particular kind of feminised femininity. At worst, it can result in the situation where an ultra-feminine, gay male version of a femininity that has been implicitly derided and parodied is re-absorbed and valorised by a female downloading public.
In other words, if these lines of traffic are sometimes ironic, and sometimes empowering, they can also work to serve up a rather old and less than ironic and empowering mode of femininity. Such over-privileged infantilisation is also writ large in henlit novels, which tend to borrow heavily from the romance genre and are often remarkably similar in terms of characterisation and plot.
Disoriented new mothers embark on attempts to refashioning their image through shopping, Botox, near-affairs until they come home to their 11 husband who revalidates them as an ideal mother eg Williams As Tania Modleski argued, romantic resolution offers the female reader the pleasure of overcoming the traditional gendered splitting of themselves - where they are both object and subject of the gaze - and instead allows them to experience the kind of transcendent nurturing love that that women may receive in infancy from their mothers.
The romance, in other words, offers a transcendent space where the fantasy is that you can let yourself go and give up self-monitoring, and he will love you anyway Modleski ; see also Gill Insects are tiny animals.
And studies have shown that their protein typically has higher quantities of minerals and vitamins than occur in many conventional meats that people eat. That finding was a surprise to Sandra G. Bukkens, an independent nutrition scientist based in Barcelona, Spain. While she was working in Italy, several years back, she was asked to survey what scientists around the world had published on the nutritional value of bugs. His research over the years has shown that the protein in insects tends to be at least as nutritious as that in conventional livestock meats.
Sometimes, the insect protein is even better, he says.
Although now retired, he worked at the University of Wisconsin—Madison for many decades. His studies have shown that people throughout much of the world eat insects.
Many cultures have eaten them for thousands of years. Although many people in wealthy Asian nations, like Japan, will snack on certain bugs, most insect dining takes place in poorer countries. In Mexico, however, insect dining remains common among all classes of people.
As a result, insects can be downloadd from street stalls or at expensive five-star restaurants, says Julieta Ramos-Elorduy of the National Autonomous University in Mexico City. Then again, Ramos-Elorduy knows how to make such meals especially tasty. Over the years she has collected recipes, tried them out, and packaged the best in a picture-filled cookbook, Creepy Crawly Cuisine: The Gourmet Guide to Edible Insects. Most insects are eaten before they become adults, she told Science News for Kids.
More frequently, people eat the grub or caterpillar stage of butterflies, beetles and moths.
Even young bees, ants and wasps may be added to improve the nutritional quality of food. Mini livestock Until recently, most people interested in insects have collected their own. Kids in central Africa may nibble on ants or grubs while out playing.Retrieved 5 September Related Posts. In many parts of the world, people view snacking on insects, such as these, to be a great treat.
So hunters in country villages have begun collecting bugs and shipping them off to distant food markets. Austrian Singles Chart . This is the cover from our cookbook this year.
This section does not cite any sources. London: Penguin. It also eliminates any chance a bug would have picked up pollutants in the field.